A:  Considering the following wave and soil conditions:

Wave condition: wave period T=10 sec, water depth d=20 m, and wave height H=3 m

Soil condition: ne=0.33, µ= 0.33, G=106 N/m2, Kz=10-5 m/sec at location z=5m (below the seabed surface)

Residual parameter, and α=0.246 and η=0.25

Which mechanism is more important? Why?

B:  Considering an infinite seabed together with wave and soil conditions given in 3A, what is the maximum depth of the wave-induced residual liquefaction?

Task 2: Scour around pipelines

A:  What is lived bed scour? What is clear water scour? What are the major differences between them?

B:  What are the methods we use for protection to scour below pipeline?

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