The review should cover the

– cryptographic strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed approach and

– well known examples as to how these ciphers can be broken using crypto-analytical techniques.

 

The review should be motivated with examples that clearly explain the cryptographic and cryptoanalytic techniques reviewed.

 

Secure information transmission is very fundamental in the various settings across the globe. One of the many tools utilized to achieve this is Encryption. Encryption is employed to assist in the protection of information being accessed by unauthorized persons. The plaintext contains a normal readable and understandable message before encryption; the cipher text is the unreadable form of the message after encryption. The conversion back into the understandable message is called decryption. Modern cryptography encompasses two procedures; Transposition and Substitution. The chief difference between the two is that in Substitution each letter changes its identity but retains its position while in Transposition each letter retains its identity but changes its position. Under Substitution there are Monoalphabetic and Polyalphabetic ciphers among others.

Monoalphabetic ciphers.

Monoalphabetic ciphers use only one substitution. The cipher has each character encoded by only one of the other characters in the cipher alphabet and each character in the cipher alphabet represents only one character in the plaintext. For example in an English monoalphabetic cipher the substitution characters are a random permutation or based on an algorithmic scheme of the 26 letters.                   Plaintext letters:         a  b  c  d  e  f …

Substitution letters:    t  h  i  j  a  b …

The ciphertext is deduced by mapping each character with a corresponding character in a look-up table. The decoding is then done by reversing the same process- the character is looked up in the substitution row and replaced with the matching character in the original row

The fundamental merit of this substitution is the random permutation of the alphabet used. There are more than 4 × 1026 of these one to one mappings. This huge number gives a huge key space, meaning that the entire amount of possible keys needed for a brute force attack guessing model is very high. …

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